Interestingly, although Darwin’s most famous book is titled On the Origin of Species, he never explained how it is possible that one species turns into two new species. A more appropriate title could have been On the Origin of Adaptations, for his book discusses at length how a given species evolves over time due to adaptations to the environment. Given all the biodiversity we see in the world, it is essential we explain how speciation works. We know all living and extinct species descend from a single common ancestor. Therefore, we need to explain how new traits arise and how new species arise. If speciation never happened, we would only see one particular type of individuals changing over time due to natural selection.
Charles Darwin’s famous quote:
“Ignorance more frequently begets confidence than does knowledge: it is those who know little, and not those who know much, who so positively assert that this or that problem will never be solved by science”.